Guide to the Interactive GDP-by-Industry Accounts Tables

This guide provides summary information about the data contained in BEA’s interactive GDP-by-Industry accounts ta­bles.  These data can be used to analyze the economic performance of 61 private industries and 4 government industries within the U.S. economy. [1]

Value Added by Industry

Value Added by Industry

Value added by industry is the contribution of industries to the Nation’s output, or gross domestic product (GDP). An industry’s value added is equal to its gross output (which consists of sales or receipts and other operating income, commodity taxes, and inventory change) minus its intermediate inputs (which consist of energy, raw materials, semi-finished goods, and ser­vices that are purchased from domestic industries or from foreign sources).  The three primary components of value added are an industry group’s return to do­mestic labor (compensation of employees), its net re­turn to government (taxes on production and imports less subsidies), and its return to domestic capital (gross operating surplus). This table presents value added by industry measured in prices of the period being observed.

Value Added by Industry as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product

This table presents value added by industry expressed as a percentage of GDP.  These “industry shares” of GDP are measured in current-dollars and therefore re­flect prices in the period being observed.

Components of Value Added by Industry Group

This table presents the three major components of value added for each of 22 industry groups. The three components include an industry group’s return to do­mestic labor (compensation of employees), its net re­turn to government (taxes on production and imports less subsidies), and its return to domestic capital (gross operating surplus).

Compensation of employees consists of the wages and salaries and supplements to wages and salaries accruing to labor as remuneration for domestic pro­duction.

Taxes on production and imports consist of the excise taxes, customs duties, sales taxes, property taxes, motor vehicle licenses, severance taxes, special assessments, and other (non-income) taxes paid to governments. Subsidies are the monetary grants paid by government agencies to private businesses and to government enterprises.

Gross operating surplus consists of the business incomes, net interest and miscellaneous payments, and business current transfer payments (net) of private domestic enterprises; the current surplus of government enterprises; private capital consumption allowances; and consumption of fixed capital of owner-occupied housing, nonprofit institutions primarily serving households, and government.

Components of Value Added by Industry as a Percentage of Value Added

This table presents each industry group’s return to do­mestic labor (compensation), net return to govern­ment (taxes on production and imports less subsidies), and return to domestic capital (gross operating surplus) as a percentage of the industry group’s value added.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Value Added by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for each industry’s value added. These indexes for value added represent the quantity of capital, labor, and re­turn to government used in the production of gross output. They include changes in multifactor produc­tivity and exclude the effect of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of value added. The chain-type quantity index for an industry’s value added is prepared by deflating the current-dollar com­modity measures of the industry’s gross output and its intermediate inputs with corresponding commodity price indexes and combining the resulting commodity quantity indexes of gross output and intermediate in­puts by industry in a Fisher index-number formula. [2]

The comparison of the percentage change in an industry’s chain-type quantity index for value added with the growth rate of a higher level aggregate (such as GDP) indicates whether the industry is grow­ing above or below the average of the industries in the aggregate.

Real Value Added by Industry

This table presents each industry’s value added mea­sure in chained (2005) dollars. Real value-added-by-industry measures are calculated as the product of the chain-type quantity index and the year 2005 current-dollar value of the corresponding series divided by 100.The percentage changes calculated from the chained-dollar estimates are the same as the chain-type quan­tity indexes. Accordingly, chained-dollar measures can be used to compute real growth rates.

The percentage changes in chained-dollar estimates and the corresponding chain-type quantity indexes can be used interchangeably, but because the formula for chain-type quantity indexes uses weights of more than one period, chained-dollar estimates are usually not additive. The value of “not allocated by industry” reflects this difference between the chained-dollar esti­mate for an industry group and the sum of the chained-dollar estimates for its detailed industries and the differences in the source data that are used to esti­mate GDP by industry and the expenditure measure of GDP.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Value Added by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for each industry’s value added. The price index for an industry is prepared by combining the price indexes for the commodities that compose the industry’s gross output and its intermediate inputs in a Fisher index-number formula. [3]

The comparison of the percentage of an industry’s chain-type price index growth with the growth of a higher level aggregate (such as the GDP chain price index) indicates whether the in­dustry’s price growth is above or below the average of the industries in that aggregate.

Contributions to Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product by Industry Group

The relative performance of industry groups can be assessed by examining their contributions to real gross domestic product growth.  This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in real GDP by industry group.

An industry’s contribution to real gross domestic product growth depends on both its real growth rate and its relative size. It is the product of its share of current-dollar GDP and its real GDP-by-Industry growth rate.

Contributions to Percent Change in the Chain-Type Price Index for Gross Domestic Product by Industry Group

Chain-type price indexes for gross domestic product by industry can be used to assess an industry's contribution to the change in GDP prices.  Because real GDP can be viewed as the combined result of all industries’ inputs of labor services and capital services, the GDP price index can be viewed as the price index for all industries’ inputs of labor services and capital services. Because value added as an input measure represents an industry's value-added inputs of labor services and capital services, the industry’s chain-type price index for value added can be used to compute contributions to GDP price change.

An industry’s contribution to the change in GDP prices depends on both the change in its chain-type price index for value added and its relative size. It is the product of its share of current-dollar GDP and the change in its chain-type price index for value added.

Gross Output by Industry

Gross Output by Industry

Gross output consists of the goods and services pro­duced by an industry. Gross output is measured by summing the value of the industry’s sales or receipts, other operating income, commodity taxes, and inven­tory change; it is valued at producers’ prices (the prices received by the industry, including excise and sales taxes). Gross output is purchased by final consumers and by industries. Because gross output may be pro­duced and consumed as an intermediate input in the same year, aggregations of gross output across indus­tries reflect double-counting and exceed GDP. This table presents gross output by industry measured in prices of the period being observed.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Gross Output by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for each industry’s gross output. The index for an industry reflects an inflation-adjusted measure of the quantities of gross output produced by the industry. Accordingly, these measures exclude the effect of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of gross out­put.

Chain-type quantity indexes for the gross output of an industry are prepared by (1) deflating the current-dollar commodity measures of the industry’s gross output (from the standard annual I-O make table) with the corresponding commodity price indexes and (2) combining the resulting commodity quantity in­dexes of the gross output of the industry in a Fisher in­dex-number formula.

Year-to-year percent changes in the chain-type quantity indexes for each industry’s gross output, together with the per­cent changes in the chain-type quantity indexes for an industry’s intermediate inputs, provide a way of de­composing an industry’s real value-added growth rate into component growth rates for its real gross output and its real intermediate inputs. An industry’s growth rate in its value-added chain-type quantity index de­pends positively on the growth rate in its gross output chain-type quantity index, and it depends negatively on the growth rate in its intermediate inputs chain-type quantity index.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Gross Output by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for gross output of an industry. The price index for an industry represents the prices received for the industry’s gross output. A chain-type price index for each industry’s gross output is prepared by combining the price in­dexes for the commodities that the industry produces in a Fisher index-number formula.

The price indexes for gross output provide a way of decomposing each industry’s value-added price growth rate into component growth rates for its gross output prices and intermediate inputs prices. Each in­dustry’s growth rate in its value-added chain-type price index depends positively on the growth rate in its gross output chain-type price index, and it depends negatively on the growth rate in its intermediate inputs chain-type price index.

Intermediate Inputs by Industry

Intermediate Inputs by Industry

Intermediate inputs consist of the energy, raw materi­als, semi finished goods, and services that an industry consumes in producing gross output, and these inputs include inputs produced by domestic industries and inputs imported from foreign sources. Intermediate inputs are valued at purchasers’ prices (the prices paid by the industry, including transportation and trade margins and excise and sales taxes). Intermediate in­puts are an industry’s secondary inputs to production (labor and capital are an industry’s primary inputs to production). This table presents intermediate inputs by industry measured in the prices of the period being observed.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Intermediate Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for the intermediate inputs of an industry. The quantity index for an industry represents the quantities of energy, raw materials, semi-finished goods, and services used by the industry to produce gross output. These indexes ex­clude the effects of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of intermediate inputs. The quantity index for the intermediate inputs of an indus­try are prepared by deflating the current-dollar com­modity measures of the industry’s intermediate inputs (from the standard annual I-O use table) with the cor­responding commodity price indexes and combining the resulting commodity quantity indexes of interme­diate inputs of the industry in a Fisher index-number formula.

Year-to-year percent changes in chain-type quantity indexes for each industry’s inter­mediate inputs, together with the percent changes in the chain-type quantity indexes for an industry’s gross output, provide a way of de­composing an industry’s real value-added growth rate into component growth rates for its real gross output and its real intermediate inputs. Each industry’s growth rate in its value-added chain-type quantity in­dex depends positively on the growth rate in its gross output chain-type quantity index, and it depends neg­atively on the growth rate in its intermediate inputs chain-type quantity index.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Intermediate Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for the in­termediate inputs of an industry. The price index for each industry represents the prices paid for the energy, raw materials, semi-finished goods, and services used by the industry to produce gross output. These price indexes are prepared by combining the price indexes for the commodities that the industries consume in a Fisher index-number formula.

Year-to-year percent changes in chain-type price indexes for each industry’s intermedi­ate inputs provide a way of de­composing an industry’s value-added price growth rate into component growth rates for the industry’s gross output prices and its intermediate inputs prices. Each industry’s growth rate in its value-added chain-type price index depends positively on the growth rate in its gross output chain-type price index, and it de­pends negatively on the growth rate in its intermediate inputs chain-type price index.

KLEMS

Composition of Gross Output by Industry

This table presents the components of gross output, which consists of value added and its components and intermediate inputs by cost category. These compo­nents are measured in the prices of the period being observed.

The estimates of KLEMS (K-capital, L-labor, E-energy, M-materials, and S-purchased services) provide greater detail on the types of inputs that are consumed by industries in the production of goods and services. These estimates show the estimates of intermediate in­puts in three cost categories—energy, materials, and purchased services. [4]

Shares of Gross Output by Industry

This table presents the components of current-dollar gross output as a percentage of each industry group’s gross output. The changes in the shares indicate the ex­tent to which expenditures on value added and on in­termediate inputs by cost category are becoming relatively more or less important to the industry.

Cost per Unit of Real Gross Output by Industry Group

An industry’s gross output price index represents the prices of its value added and its intermediate inputs, so the industry’s price index and the current-dollar components of its gross output can be used to assess the contribution of each component to the gross output price index.  When a component of gross output unit costs grows faster than the gross output price index, then the component’s contribution to the growth in unit costs has increased.

Gross output unit costs are computed by dividing current-dollar gross output and its components by real (chained-dollar) gross output.  The resulting quotients provide the gross output chain-type price indexes and the part of the price indexes associated with each component. Gross output unit cost measures attribute changes in the gross output unit prices to the components of gross output in proportion to each component’s share of current-dollar gross output.

Contributions to Percent Changes in Chain-Type Price Indexes for Gross Output by Industry Group

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in the chain-type price indexes for gross output by industry group, and it includes changes in the price indexes for value added and inter­mediate inputs by cost category. The effects of the in­put prices on the growth in the prices for gross output can be identified by examining the inputs’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the indus­try’s gross output price index. The size of the contribu­tions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Contributions to Percent Changes in Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Gross Output by Industry Group

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in chain-type quantity indexes for gross output by industry group.  The effects of the use of KLEMS inputs on growth in real gross output for an industry group can be identified by examining the in­puts’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the industry’s real gross output. The size of the contributions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Energy Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for the energy inputs of each industry. The price index for each industry represents the prices paid for the energy used by the industry to produce gross output. The price indexes for energy inputs by cost category represent the prices received by an industry for its output and the prices paid for its inputs. A chain-type price index for each industry’s energy inputs is prepared by combining the price in­dexes for the commodities that the industry produces in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Price Index for All Industries Energy Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in the chain-type price indexes for energy inputs by industry group, and it includes changes in the price indexes for energy inputs by cost category.  The effects of the in­put prices on the growth in the prices for energy inputs can be identified by examining the inputs’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the indus­try’s energy input price index.  The size of the contribu­tions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Energy Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for the energy inputs of an industry. The quantity index for an industry represents the quantities of energy used by the industry to produce gross output. These indexes ex­clude the effects of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of energy inputs. The quantity index for the energy inputs of an indus­try are prepared by deflating the current-dollar com­modity measures of the industry’s energy inputs (from the standard annual I-O use table) with the cor­responding commodity price indexes and combining the resulting commodity quantity indexes of energy inputs of the industry in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Quantity Index for All Industries Energy Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in chain-type quantity indexes for energy inputs by industry group. The effects of the use of KLEMS inputs on growth in real gross output for an industry group can be identified by examining the in­puts’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the industry’s real gross output. The size of the contributions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Materials Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for the materials inputs of each industry. The price index for each industry represents the prices paid for the materials used by the industry to produce gross output. The price indexes for materials inputs by cost category represent the prices received by an industry for its output and the prices paid for its inputs. A chain-type price index for each industry’s materials inputs is prepared by combining the price in­dexes for the commodities that the industry produces in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Price Index for All Industries Materials Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in the chain-type price indexes for materials inputs by industry group, and it includes changes in the price indexes for materials inputs by cost category. The effects of the in­put prices on the growth in the prices for materials inputs can be identified by examining the inputs’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the indus­try’s materials input price index. The size of the contribu­tions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Materials Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for the materials inputs of an industry. The quantity index for an industry represents the quantities of materials used by the industry to produce gross output. These indexes ex­clude the effects of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of materials inputs. The quantity index for the materials inputs of an indus­try are prepared by deflating the current-dollar com­modity measures of the industry’s materials inputs (from the standard annual I-O use table) with the cor­responding commodity price indexes and combining the resulting commodity quantity indexes of materials inputs of the industry in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Quantity Index for All Industries Materials Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in chain-type quantity indexes for materials inputs by industry group.  The effects of the use of KLEMS inputs on growth in real gross output for an industry group can be identified by examining the in­puts’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the industry’s real gross output. The size of the contributions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Price Indexes for Purchased Service Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type price index for the purchased service inputs of each industry. The price index for each industry represents the prices paid for the purchased services used by the industry to produce gross output. The price indexes for purchased service inputs by cost category represent the prices received by an industry for its output and the prices paid for its inputs. A chain-type price index for each industry’s purchased service inputs is prepared by combining the price in­dexes for the commodities that the industry produces in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Price Index for All Industries Purchased-Services Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in the chain-type price indexes for purchased services inputs by industry group, and it includes changes in the price indexes for purchased services inputs by cost category. The effects of the in­put prices on the growth in the prices for purchased services inputs can be identified by examining the inputs’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the indus­try’s purchased services input price index. The size of the contribu­tions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Chain-Type Quantity Indexes for Purchased Service Inputs by Industry

This table presents a chain-type quantity index for the purchased service inputs of an industry. The quantity index for an industry represents the quantities of purchased services used by the industry to produce gross output. These indexes ex­clude the effects of price changes that are included in current-dollar measures of purchased service inputs. The quantity index for the purchased service inputs of an indus­try are prepared by deflating the current-dollar com­modity measures of the industry’s purchased service inputs (from the standard annual I-O use table) with the cor­responding commodity price indexes and combining the resulting commodity quantity indexes of purchased service inputs of the industry in a Fisher index-number formula.

Contributions to Percent Change by Industry Group in the Chain-Type Quantity Index for All Industries Purchased-Services Inputs

This table presents the contributions to year-to-year percent changes in chain-type quantity indexes for purchased services inputs by industry group. The effects of the use of KLEMS inputs on growth in real gross output for an industry group can be identified by examining the in­puts’ percentage point contribution to the percent change in the industry’s real gross output. The size of the contributions depends on both the relative size and the growth rate of the contributing component.

Employment by Industry

Full-Time and Part-Time Employees by Industry

Equals the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules.

Full-Time Equivalent Employees by Industry

Full-time equivalent employees equals the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees to average weekly hours per employee on full-time schedules.

Persons Engaged in Production by Industry

Equals the number of full-time equivalent employees plus the number of self-employed persons. Unpaid family workers are not included.


[1] The industries are based on the 1997 North American Industry Classi­fication System.

 

[2]See Brian C. Moyer, Mark A. Planting, Mahnaz Fahim-Nader, and Sherlene K.S. Lum, “Preview of the Comprehensive Revision of the Annual Industry Accounts: Integrating the Annual Input-Output Accounts and the Gross-Domestic-Product-by-Industry Accounts,” Survey of Current Busi­ness 84 (March 2004): 50–51.
http://www.bea.gov/bea/pub/0304cont.htm

 

[3]See Robert E. Yuskavage and Mahnaz Fahim-Nader, “Gross Domestic Product by Industry for 1947-86: New Estimates Based on the North American Industry Classification System,” Survey of Current Busi­ness 85 (December 2005): 77. http://www.bea.gov/bea/pub/1205cont.htm

 

[4] See Erich H. Strassner, Gabriel W. Medeiros, and George M. Smith, “Annual Industry Accounts: Introducing KLEMS Input Estimates for 1997–2003,” Survey 85 (September 2005): 31-65.