Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms,
by Gordon H. Hanson (University of Michigan and NBER), Raymond J. Mataloni,
Jr. (BEA), and Matthew J. Slaughter (Dartmouth College and NBER)
Presented at the Brookings Trade Forum 2001, Washington, DC, May 10-11,
Recent theoretical work tends to characterize multinational enterprises
as arising through either horizontal or vertical foreign direct investment
(FDI). Empirical research tends to find stronger support for the former
than for the latter. In this paper, we use recent, detailed data on U.S.
multinational firms to revisit the question of why multinationals go abroad.
We examine three types of foreign activities of U.S. multinationals: global
outsourcing, the use of export platforms, and wholesale trading. Our results
suggest that vertical FDI is more common than previous research suggests,
and more generally that the foreign affiliates of multinationals span
a diverse set of activities that each respond to policies and characteristics
of host countries in quite different ways.
Last changed: June 1, 2001